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Chemical analysis of honey:

Analyzing honey chemically helps to detect the quality of honey. Honey must be chemically tested to make sure that honey is mainly composed of several types of sugar, especially fructose and glucose. In addition to other substances such as organic acids, enzymes, and solid particles resulting from honey extraction.

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Chemical Analysis of Honey

 

Analyzing honey chemically | Knowing the chemical components of honey:

The color of honey varies from transparent to dark brown. The density can be liquid, viscous, or fully or partially crystalline. The flavor and taste different, but they are caused by the source of plants. It is not difficult to detect adulteration in honey by analyzing honey chemically. Therefore, it is practical and economical to rely on trust in the source of honey and obtain it from a known party to avoid being cheated and not to give incorrect information. In addition to testing and analysis. Chemist for honey to check the quality of honey.

 

Chemically analyzing honey:

 

1- Water content estimation (evening):

Compared to this analysis, knowing whether or not the percentage in honey is compared to international standards is required compared to 21%, depending on the device for adjusting the percentage of sugars and the goal of the type of analysis. If any of the water is in honey, they have a 23% to 23% increase for other honey.

2- Estimating the percentage of ash:

The ash and metallic elements in honey can be estimated by examining them by incineration in a special furnace (a blast furnace) to find out the total content of minerals. It is also possible to measure the content of each of the metallic elements using different methods. The most important of which are flame spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy. Methods Measurement by calibration according to the amount of the element in honey. This standard describes the ash content in honey in order to assess the type of honey. It is known that the ash content of any food item expresses its content of mineral elements after burning it.

3- Estimating the amount of HMF:

It is measured by a spectrophotometric method, which reflects the honey’s feet and the extent of its exposure to heat. It results from the decomposition of reduced sugars. This technique is applied to all honey samples to determine the concentration of the hydroxymethylforfour content in honey, which is usually expressed as mg/kg. It is a good way to evaluate the quality of honey. Depending on the extent of absorption of HMF ultraviolet rays at the wavelength of 284nm in order to avoid interference from other ingredients and the wavelength of 336nm, the hydroxymethylforfour content in honey after processing and/or mixing should not exceed 40 mg/kg.

4- Quantification of phenols:

They are organic compounds that contain an OH hydroxyl group that is directly attached to an unsaturated carbon atom or another bound (ether, ester, sugar) and is quantified through absorbance. It is a class of organic chemical compounds structurally composed of the direct link of the hydroxyl group with an aromatic hydrocarbon, and the name phenols are attributed the simplest of these compounds is phenol C6H5OH. Phenols can be simple, and they can be varied according to the number of phenol units in a molecule. Phenols are found in nature in the form of several compounds, and they are obtained synthetically.

 Natural phenolic compounds are divided into:

  • The family of plant phenolic compounds is sparse.
  • The family of plant phenolic compounds is very widespread.
  • Phenolic compounds found in nature in the form of polymers.

The determination of phenols is based on the Singleton Rossi method with the help of Reactive defoliant reagent This reagent consists of phosphotungstic acid and phosphomolybdic acid which is referred by phenols to tungsten oxide and molybdenum of blue color and is quantified by absorbance with a UV spectrophotomètre device and by using the amount of gallic acid as a phenol Studied samples.

 

5- Estimate the number of flavonoids:

Flavonoids are generally colored compounds with low molecular masses characterized by a basic structure that contains 15 carbon atoms distributed in two aromatic rings linked by a heterogeneous ring containing an oxygen atom and are polyphenolic compounds, are colored pigments that are spread in most plant varieties and in their various parts such as roots, leaves, flowers, etc., And it is measured based on the ability to form the yellow complex between the aluminum trichloroethylene with the hydroxyl group present in the benzene rings of the flavonoids, where the complexes are formed between the carbonyl group and the hydroxy and another unstable complex with the two ortho hydroxy groups, the complex has high absorption.

6- Chemical evaluation of antioxidant activity:

Antioxidant, which is a group of elements and compounds found naturally in most vegetables, fruits, and most medicinal herbs, which is a measure of the ability of the compound to inhibit free radicals or stop the oxidation process. Colorization and absorbance estimation at a given wavelength. The total antioxidant capacity of TAC can be tested by using ammonium molybdate. We enable this analysis to know the total estimate of the antioxidants in honey samples and extracts and by the DPPH test. This test depends on the inhibition of free radical, DPPH depending on the ability of the extracts to be given to the hydrogen atom. This is shown by the color reaction of the free root DPPH with a violet color. The total capacity of the antioxidant is quantified by the UV-VIS device, which uses gallic acid.

7- Sugars estimation:

Sugars are the main component of bee honey, although the bee collects the nectar that contains sucrose. it converts it into monosaccharide glucose and fructose by the action of the enzyme invertase. Reduced sugars are estimated using titration. Total sugars are estimated using the same method for measuring moisture. After acidic hydrolysis of non-reducing sugars such as sucrose.

8- Estimation of Proline, Amino Acids, and Proteins:

This gives an idea about honey and distinguishes it from other sugar solutions that are free of proteins and amino acids. Especially prolene, which comes from the bee’s body.

9- Acids in honey:

Acids (acidity) in honey and include gluconic acid, which is the main acid in honey, formic acid, mica, malic acid, gluconolactone, vinegar acid, lemon, and butyric acid. The titratable free acids are usually estimated with a dilute solution of 0.5 standard sodium hydroxide. They are either calculated on the milliequivalent/kg basis or on the basis of mg of one of the main acids in honey such as gluconic acid or formic acid.

10- Determination of the enzyme diastase:

The diastase enzyme should not be less than 8 units, and this enzyme is added by the bees to the nectar when converting it into honey. Bees excrete it from the hypopharyngeal glands in the head and this enzyme is destroyed quickly when the temperature rises, so an indication of heating honey is taken.

11- Viscosity:

The viscosity of honey increases with the increase in its concentration, i.e., The lower the percentage of moisture in it and the less viscosity of honey with the increase in temperature and vice versa. The viscosity of honey can be estimated using the ThermoHaake Viscometer VT550.

12- Statistical analysis:

The statistical analysis was conducted according to the ANOVA program.

 

13- Detection of antibiotic residues: